Meteorites, Asteroids, & Comets

The Oldest Carbonates In The Solar System

The Oldest Carbonates In The Solar System

A meteorite that fell in northern Germany in 2019 contains carbonates which are among the oldest in the solar system; it also evidences the earliest presence of liquid water on a minor planet.

Astrochemistry

Much Of Earth's Nitrogen Was Locally Sourced

Much Of Earth's Nitrogen Was Locally Sourced

Where did Earth's nitrogen come from? Rice University scientists show one primordial source of the indispensable building block for life was close to home.

Biosignatures & Paleobiology

PTAL Multi-spectral Database Of Planetary Terrestrial Analogues: Raman Data Overview

PTAL Multi-spectral Database Of Planetary Terrestrial Analogues: Raman Data Overview

The multi analytical study of terrestrial analogues is a useful strategy to deepen the knowledge about the geological and environmental evolution of Mars and other extraterrestrial bodies.

Venus

Three Different Ways to Explain the Sulfur Depletion in the Clouds of Venus

Three Different Ways to Explain the Sulfur Depletion in the Clouds of Venus

The depletion of SO2 and H2O in and above the clouds of Venus (45 -- 65 km) cannot be explained by known gas-phase chemistry and the observed composition of the atmosphere.

TRAPPIST-1

Characterisation Of The Hydrospheres Of TRAPPIST-1 Planets

Characterisation Of The Hydrospheres Of TRAPPIST-1 Planets

Context. Planetary mass and radius data are showing a wide variety in densities of low-mass exoplanets. This includes sub-Neptunes, whose low densities can be explained with the presence of a volatile-rich layer. Water is one of the most abundant volatiles, which can be in the form of different phases depending on the planetary surface conditions.

Extrasolar Planets

Around Which Stars Can TESS Detect Earth-like Planets? The Revised TESS Habitable Zone Catalog

Around Which Stars Can TESS Detect Earth-like Planets? The Revised TESS Habitable Zone Catalog

In the search for life in the cosmos, NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission has already monitored about 74% of the sky for transiting extrasolar planets, including potentially habitable worlds.

Extrasolar Planets

Probing The Capability Of Future Direct Imaging Missions To Spectrally Constrain The Frequency Of Earth-like Planets

Probing The Capability Of Future Direct Imaging Missions To Spectrally Constrain The Frequency Of Earth-like Planets

A critical question in astrobiology is whether exoEarth candidates (EECs) are Earth-like, in that they originate life that progressively oxygenates their atmospheres similarly to Earth. We propose answering this question statistically by searching for O2 and O3 on EECs with missions such as HabEx or LUVOIR.

Astrogeology

Using Ancient Fossils And Gravitational-wave Science To Predict Earth's Future

Using Ancient Fossils And Gravitational-wave Science To Predict Earth's Future

A group of international scientists, including an Australian astrophysicist, has used knowhow from gravitational wave astronomy (used to find black holes in space) to study ancient marine fossils as a predictor of climate change.

Astrochemistry

2-aminooxazole In Astrophysical Environments: IR Spectra And Destruction Cross Sections For Energetic Processing

2-aminooxazole In Astrophysical Environments: IR Spectra And Destruction Cross Sections For Energetic Processing

2-aminooxazole (2AO), a N-heterocyclic molecule, has been proposed as an intermediate in prebiotic syntheses. It has been demonstrated that it can be synthesized from small molecules such as cyanamide and glycoaldehyde, which are present in interstellar space.

Astrochemistry

Discovery of Interstellar Trans-cyanovinylacetylene (HCCCH=CCHCN) and Vinylcyanoacetylene (H2C=CHC3N) in GOTHAM Observations of TMC-1

Discovery of Interstellar Trans-cyanovinylacetylene (HCCCH=CCHCN) and Vinylcyanoacetylene (H2C=CHC3N) in GOTHAM Observations of TMC-1

We report the discovery of two unsaturated organic species, trans-(E)-cyanovinylacetylene and vinylcyanoacetylene, using the second data release of the GOTHAM deep survey towards TMC-1 with the 100 m Green Bank Telescope.

Astrogeology

BioAsteroid Payload On Orbit

BioAsteroid Payload On Orbit

Inside one of the containers of this 40-cm-across miniature laboratory in orbit, a battle is set to start between asteroid-like fragments and rock-hungry microbes, to probe their use for space mining in the future.

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